➸ [Reading] ➺ Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory By Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley ➭ – Saudionline.co.uk

Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory chapter 1 Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, meaning Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, genre Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, book cover Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, flies Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory, Exploring Revolution: Essays on Latin American Insurgency and Revolutionary Theory 4d6039c1547b3 This Series Of Essays On Insurgency And Revolution Focuses On Events In Latin America Since The Contributors Discuss Revolutionary Theory, The Nature Of Social Movements And Models Of Social Action Topics Raised Include Terror, Guerilla Regimes, Mobilizing Peasants, And The Vulnerability Of Regimes To Revolution

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    Ideology and Revolution The Limitations of Consciousness Raising in Revolutionary StrugglesConscientiza o conscientization or consciousness raising Term introduced by Paulo Freire, who sought to develop a critical pedagogy which was unfortunately deeply entrenched in myopic egotism Freire instead argues that the illiterate peasant is literally dehumanized by this pre elevated state of consciousness unlike the obviously human educator p 109Major difference between Marx Lenin Lenin saw the need for a revolutionary vanguard to foment ideology in the masses proletariat whereas Marx I guess supposed this might happen organically under the right circumstances Peter Berger has mounted a decisive phenomenological assault on the notion that human beings posssess higher or lower levels of consciousness From his perspective, each human being inhabits a social, meaning providing world, one partially given and partially and socially constructed each such world is unique, although shared in varying degrees with other humans As opposed to Freire, Berger posits the equality of all empirically available social worlds p 107 We might infer a rule from this striking juxtaposition of saddening words you do not know who your bedfellows will be once you begin discerning levels of consciousness p 110 Eric Wolf, Theda Skocpol, Joel Migdal, Jeffery Paige, Samuel Popkin, and James Scott have all in different manners made it abundantly clear that social and political constraints, rather than false consciousness, inhibit the collective, radical action of the peasantry to paraphrase Mae West, consciousness has nothing to do with it p 110Attack on Chomsky One of the remarkable features about such recurring works is how little the arguments rely on empirical research in the social sciences Wickham Crowley uses the example of American media advertising as a misconstrued alteration of consciousness as Barrington Moore argues, the research findings suggest that ordinary people form their ideas from their immediate experiences, not from mass media, or not to any great extent p 111 To assume that peasants can only attain higher levels of consciousness through interaction with revolutionaries is, at best, badly phrased To term that newfound consciousness higher than the previous one is merely hubris p 113 Carlos Rangel suggested that a Boy Scout would have been better prepared for guerrilla activity than the typical bourgeois guerrillero of the 1960s What peasant guerrilla would have written the following in his diary or indeed kept a diary at all I must write letters to Sartre and B Russell requesting them to organize an international fund in support of the Bolivian Liberation Movement p 114The writer, of course, is Che Guevara I m not too sure what point Wickham Crowley is making, though, aside from the disparity between intellectuals and peasantry With few exceptions, the revolutionary movements in Latin America occurred at the junction between Communist ideology and peasant unrest Hence Solzhenitsyn argues that literature created by the upper classes about the lives of the poor is always marred by the incapacity genuinely to understand They simply could not climb into the pelts of the members of the lower stratum p 114Tolstoy tried his darnedest, though Generally absent from the guerrillas themes are abolition of private property in the means of production collectivization of agriculture the suppression of middlemen and of independent market activity not controlled by government That is, guerrillas typically are not promoting the very institutions historically embedded in socialist economies dominated by Marxist inspired political parties that they seek to emulate after the revolution p 116Castro s revolution is as good an example of this as any As Peter Berger pointed out some time ago, regardless of the comparative realities of capitalist and socialist societies, there is no question that socialism has by far the better myths concerning the society it wishes to create p 118 that terror may arise from the very attempt to reorganize morality on an a priori basis which is why Berger suggests cognitive respect as a fundamental ethical principle for development p 119Narodnichestvo practiced by Russia s agarian populists during the 1800s go out to the people, share their lives, and raise them up This was, apparently, embodied in the spirit of H ctor B jar of the Peruvian ELN Ej rcito de Liberaci n Nacional though not the ELN itself Pedagogy needs to be a mutual rapprochement rather than conversion p 121 Therefore, calls for the land for those who work it should not be considered rapprochement with peasant interests unless the revolutionaries evince a serious commitment to a type of land reform congruent with peasant desires, which clearly rules out collectivization no peasantry, pace Communist Chinese claims, has voluntarily collectivized itself in modern history p 122 Trotskyists are distinguished from other Marxists by their categorical rejection of the growth of a centralized, bureaucratic state apparatus which becomes an organ for repressing the masses who made the revolution They therefore reject the Stalinist model p 123Is it possible to have post revolutionary mechanisms in the hands of the masses Guatemala MR 13 the function of the guerrillas is seen as that of organizing the peasants and becoming their revolutionary instrument Foray into network theory Indeed, in some cases, individuals joined the church while expressing complete disbelief in Moon s teachings read ideology Stark concludes that the primary basis of conversion was attachment p 129For a grounded approach to the effect of social networks on revolutionary movements, consider In the Time of the Butterflies by Julia Alvarez.Sendero Luminoso up to 6,000 armed members with at least 20 supporters for each soldier unparalleled total institution in the form of University of Huamanga dominated education dept and outreach to indigenous peasant highlands The Guatemalan guerrillas were helped in part by the strong solidarity of Indian communities in the western highlands once Indians decided to join the revolution, they often did so as villages, not as individuals, and both ORPA the Organization of the People in Arms and the EGP recruited through Indian mediators and in the Indian tongues, while committing their organizations to racial equality as well as socialist revolution p 133 Fidel Castro tapped into this preexisting social network when he signed an accord with P rez in mid 1956, which would give protection and land to the squatter population if it helped Castro to seize power p 134 The Colombian guerrilla movement which officially began around 1965 can be summarized simply the guerrilla movements emerged from the peasantry, rather than coming to the countryside, and thus the whole mobilizational model is largely irrelevant to the Colombian experience, as is the consciousness raising approach Those same areas Sumapaz, Viot , and Tequendama fell under the influence of the Colombian Communist Party PCC very early on, and later became the bases of true peasant republics, which formed as self governing, self defense areas during La Violencia of the 1950s p 135 Tilly s analysis implies an aphorism no organizational mobilization of resources, no revolutionary contention Disembodied hostility does not create a revolutionary movement As Trotsky noted some time ago, if sheer exploitation were enough to generate an uprising, then the masses would always be up in arms p 137

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